DISTINCT CLUSTERS OF EIGENVALUES DEPICTING UNPARALLELED ATTRIBUTES OF SOME VEGETATION BELTS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA

D Y Papi, E I Mbaekwe

Abstract


 An ecological survey was carried out to ascertain the distinct clusters of eigenvalues using Principal Component

Analysis of attributes expressed by the different biotic and abiotic factors predominant in the vegetation belts of

Northern Nigeria. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Stratified Random Sampling were used to select State

capitals that were visited, namely; Lokoja, Minna, Katsina and Jos each representing a vegetation belt each

(Southern Guinea Savanna (SGS), Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS), Sudan Savanna (SDS) and Montane

Vegetation (MNV) respectively. A plot size of 15m x 20m (300 m2 ) was established for data collection on trees

and shrubs. Counting of grasses and forbs was done using of 1m2  wooden quadrat. The following plant attributes

were assessed; total number of species, total number of wood individuals and density of all species. A total of

142 plant species were collected. The Montane vegetation had the highest total number of species (36.20± 1.07),

total number of wood individuals (65.20± 9.90) and species density (65.20± 6.40). The Southern Guinea savanna

had the highest total number of individuals (68.60± 10.79), relative percentage contribution of most abundance

species (48.47± 4.88), Shannon’s diversity index (0.18± 0.03), and the ba sal area of woody plants (19.94± 6.67).

Principal Component Analysis demonstrated that there are no two or more vegetation belts that are capable of

exhibiting similar attributes at a particular time.

Key word-  Eigenvalues, Principal Components Analysis, attributes, vegetation belts, Northern Nigeria.


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